When constructing a shade structure, it should allow 2.5 to 3m per animal which will give the minimum desirable protection for cattle, whether it be for one animal belonging to a small holder or many animals in a commercial herd. The roof should be a minimum of 3m high to allow air movement. If financially feasible, all the area that will be shaded some time during the day should be paved with good quality concrete.
- Deep-Bedded Sheds
In a deep-bedded system, straw, sawdust, shavings or other bedding material is periodically placed in the resting area so that a mixture of bedding and manure builds up in a thick layer. Although this increases the bulk of manure, it may be easier to handle than wet manure alone. This system is most practical when bedding is plentiful and cheap.
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3.Loose Housing with Free Stalls
Although simple yard and a shade or yard and bedded shed systems are entirely satisfactory in warm climates, particularly in semi-arid areas, some farmers may prefer a system with somewhat more protection. A loose housing yard and shed with free stalls will satisfy this need. Less bedding will be required and less manure will have to be removed.
Free stalls must be of the right size in order to keep the animals clean and to reduce injuries to a minimum. When stalls are too small, injuries to teats will increase and the cows may also tend to lie in other areas that are less clean than the stalls. If the stalls are too large, cows will get dirty from manure dropped in the stall and more labour will be expended in cleaning the shed areas
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